Sunday, May 24, 2020

Final Program Plan For Insufficient Sleep Essay - 2131 Words

Final Program Plan for Insufficient Sleep in Adults Brandi Davis DNH 226 Danville Community College 12/6/16 ASSESSMENT Public Health Problem Sleep is a very important aspect of daily life. Many people have jobs, school, and family obligations to incorporate into their day. Sometimes sleep gets pushed on the back burner to make room for other activities. Sleep deprivation is a condition describing when a person doesn’t get enough sleep. Although the amount of sleep that people need varies, most people (adults) generally need as much as eight hours of sleep each night to feel well rested and alert throughout the day and evening(Drowsy Driving: Asleep at the Wheel, 2015). According to research by Brown University, Rhode Island, at least 11 percent of students report good sleep. On the other hand, 73 percent of students were found to have sleep problems. At least 30 percent of college women and 18 percent of college men reported that they suffered from (some form of) insomnia over the past 3 months. On an interesting note, another online survey found that many students ‘crash’ on the weekends, sleeping mor e than 8 hours. 72 percent of students were found to sleep 8 to 9 hours on weekends, while 28 percent sleep more than 10 hours on weekends. A larger study pool found a more accurate look into how college students handle sleep. Conducted by the American College Health Association in 2010, the survey gathered as much as 95,712Show MoreRelatedSleep Health : Essential For An Individual s Health And Well Being1418 Words   |  6 Pages HS315 Leslie Boyle Unit 9: Final Project Professor Ann Dickerson Sleep health is essential for an individual’s health and well-being. Sleep disorders and sleep deprivation is an unmet public health concern. It is estimated that fifty to seventy million Americans chronically suffer from some type of sleep disorder, which in turn, effects daily function and negatively affecting health and longevity (The National Academy of Sciences, 2006). Sleep is increasingly identified as importantRead MoreRespiratory Therapist Opinions on Obtaining a Bachelor’s Degree1722 Words   |  7 Pagesyes, 36% said no, 26% already have a Bachelors degree, and 4% are currently pursuing/enrolled. When asked if the therapist would consider obtaining a Bachelors degree if certain programs existed (checking all that apply): 29% liked the hybrid program; 16% liked traditional on campus program, 43% liked online program, 12% liked other. Those surveyed were asked to choose an incentive the workplace could provide for them to consider a bachelor-degree. Seven ty-nine percent of those polled chose tuitionRead MoreAnalysis Of Napping Area On Oregon Tech Wilsonville Campus Essay5215 Words   |  21 Pagessleeping and not having enough sleep at night can affect their health and their performance in class (Chant, 2014). Having a napping area in the Wilsonville campus can be useful space for the student where they can recharge their body and brain with some energy. Not having a nap station make students confuse about whether any place on campus is good for sleeping or not. Implementing a napping area will help students to know where is the best and the safest place to sleep in campus without stressingRead MoreThe Issue Of Teen Suicide4465 Words   |  18 Pagescoordinated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 17 percent of high school students in this survey confessed that they had solemnly considered attempting suicide within the previous twelve months; 14 percent said they had made a plan to commit suicide; 8 percent rep orted having attempted suicide one or more times over that period; and just under 3 percent disclosed that they had made an attempt which led to a treatment by a doctor or nurse. In one study of more than 6,000 adolescentsRead MoreFast Food Restaurants, Childhood Obesity, and Healthy Eating Habits3327 Words   |  13 Pageswhole-grain product (Friedman). Others disagree with Comeries claim that the toys in childrens meals significantly contribute to childhood obesity. Andrew Rigie, the vice president of the New York State Restaurant Association, challenged Comries plan, stating the need to find more effective ways to combat obesity than by taking toys away from children and choices away from their parents. (Friedman). Rigie said the New York State Restaurant Association looks forward to working with the City CouncilRead MoreEmerging Issues in Procurement2387 Words   |  10 Pagesassociated with outsourcing include, Cost saving, The lowering of the overall costs services to the business which will involve reducing the scope of defining quality levels, repricing, negotiation and cost restructuring Improving quality: Achieving a sleep change in quality through the contracting out the service with new service level agreements. This is achieved as usually contracted companies want to perform to their best to appease their boss. Increased Flexibility, (adjustment) by focusing on theRead MoreSuccessful and Unsuccessful Entrepreneurs6107 Words   |  25 Pagessuccessful in many ways, and draws from them observations and lessons on the failings of active education for some students, and the burdens placed on instructors. Experiential learning is not a new concept. Originally derived from apprenticeship programs, experiential learning strives to give students the opportunity to put into practice the theories they learn in the classroom. Proponents are quick to point out that active learning goes beyond memorization and requires students to become engagedRead MorePersonal Financial Planning Assignment 16789 Words   |  28 Pagesdrives them to. Patty is fascinated with the world of finance and has a mentor from TD that she meets with, Kobe is always on the court shooting hoops, and Gordon is a master chef always playing in the kitchen as well as attending a kid’s culinary program. In addition to taking the kids to their after school activities Maria does all the cooking (with the assistance of Gordon) and cleaning. Daniel is too busy with work to assist with the household duties, plus he is not very good at cooking andRead MoreCommunity Health Nursing Final Exam Study Guide Essay15874 Words   |  64 Pagesï » ¿ NUR 420 Fall 2013 Final Exam Focus Areas -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1. Health care for homeless, why is it so costly? They typically have to stay in the hospital for a longer amount of time because they have a lot more co-morbidities that need to be treated. Being brought to the ED is extremely expensive. Critical interventions are very costly, and so are all the diagnostic tests that must be done. They usually don’tRead MoreBehavior Change Tests4668 Words   |  19 Pagesassessments inclusive of universal examples; the third section will include the antecedent influences that I had, primarily, in the form of advice from my family members, that instigated the development of certain business traits in me; the fourth and final section will include the implications of these tests on my business traits. The paper will then end with a conclusion of further personal analysis on my business. Critical Evaluation GET profile Collaborative It could appear just like an effective

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Literature Review Graduate Recruitment and Selection

Literature Review: Graduate Recruitment and Selection Recruitment and selection forms the foundation of the core activities and processes underlying human resource management and such activities include the acquisition, training and development, and rewarding performance of workers (Gilmore, and Williams, 2009). The success and sustainability of most organizations is directly proportional to skills and competencies of the employees. Equally, the entry point into any organization is dependent on the effectiveness of the recruitment and selection practices of the hiring team within the organization. In light of this, competition in the UK employment market has increased tremendously over the past few decades. This can be attributed to the inability of the employment market to absorb the growing pool of graduates from institutions of higher learning. According to Mohamed Branine, (2008, p. 497), graduate recruitment is one of the leading and toughest challenges facing the majority of potential employers. Mohamed (2008) argues that the caus es of this phenomenon can be in part due to the complexities associated with the selection of the most qualified individuals and as well, due to the availability of several graduates in different disciplines from Ivy League institutions. To that purpose, the demand for quality graduates will remain highly competitive, the most advantaged recruiters will be those with strong recruitment policies, coupled with exceptional training and development policies. In some instances, financial abilities of potential recruiters will play a substantial role in future graduate recruitment and selection processes. Varied researches and studies have been carried out and written up regarding the aspect of graduate recruitment, the attitudes of graduates, and the attitudes of recruiters with respect to choosing their employers, and as well, the perceptions of graduates towards their formative years in the employment sector. Covered in past researches also includes the influences of management executives on recruiting activities, the strategies and methods used to conduct and communicate information regarding the recruitment process, and reliability and accuracy of the recruiting tools and instruments. Much of this research has, however, concentrated on different aspects within the recruitment and selection process in different organizations across the work. Scope of this Literature Review In setting the context for the research undertaken in this paper, this research limits itself to the discussion of graduate recruitment and selection process in the United Kingdom. It aims to cover the gap that existed in previous researches that have been covered and written up on the field of graduate recruitment and selection process by limiting the aspect of generalizations and concentrating on particular aspects. To that purpose, it will define the concept of graduate recruitment, examine the changes and types in the strategies and methods of graduate recruitment and selection used in UK-based organizations, and identify the reasons behind the variations in the changes and developments. Additionally, this literature review will examine graduate recruitment tools and mechanisms applied in various recruitment processes, and as well, highlight particular aspects that interest employers or recruiters during the graduate recruitment process (Raybould, and Sheedy, 2005). Finally yet i mportant, the literature review will provide a consistent conclusion based on the analysis of the graduate recruitment and selection process in the UK and possibly offer recommendations regarding future researches in general, and the graduate recruitment and selection process in particular. In this literature review, the term ‘graduate’ is used to refer to both undergraduate (bachelor’s degree) and postgraduate (Master’s degree) holders from recognized institutions of higher learning such as college or university. Therefore, any reference made herein referring to graduates will be referring to applicants holding either an undergraduate degree or a postgraduate degree. Majority of individuals in these categories is prepared to handle the complexities associated with diverse forms of employment and work. Simply put, their institutions equipped them with the requisite knowledge and skills required in the employment market. Graduate Recruitment and Selection Graduate recruitment and selection forms an essential part in the central activities underlying the management of human resources within many organizations. These activities include the acquisition of talent, training and developing the talent, and eventually rewarding the performance of the acquired talent. As such, the recruitment and selection process forms an integral part of the works undertaken by human resource management and other specialists involved in the graduate and recruitment process. According to Mohamed Branine (2008, p. 500) â€Å"graduate recruitment and selection process refers to the process of searching for and obtaining potential job applicants from graduates in sufficient quantity and quality so that potential employers can select the most suitable candidates to fill in their job vacancies (p. 500).† Universally, there is commonly accepted strategy or commonly agreed procedure of recruiting and selecting graduates due to the different recruiting needs a nd selection methods among many employers. The differences and variations in recruiting and selection methods among employers are dependent on the operations, size, and needs (Sackett Lievens, 2008). The graduate recruitment and selection process is structured in such a manner that it involves planned rational activities comprising of particular sequentially linked phases within the employee resourcing process. Graduate recruitment and selection process comprises of two aspects that can be broken down to its constituent parts. Having defined ‘graduate’ to refer to undergraduate and postgraduate degree holders, the terms ‘recruitment’ and ‘selection’ can be defined as separate constituent parts. ‘Recruitment’ entails the process of generating a pool of capable people who qualify to apply for employment positions in certain organizations. On the other hand, ‘selection’ refers to the process of whereby managers and recruiting officials utilize specific instruments to choose particular individuals from a pool of applicants in which a person or persons are more likely to succeed in that particular job position and this is mainly dependent on the goals of management and respective legal requirements. Raybould, and Sheedy, (2005, p. 63) posit that, however the two functions (recruitment and selection) are closely connected, each func tion calls for the application of different sets of skill and expertise, and they are fulfilled different members within the hiring process. As such, the recruitment activity can be outsourced to outside agencies but the selection cannot be outsourced and this explains the reason as to why it is advantageous to treat the two items separately. Speaking of the roles, the recruitment and selection process plays a pivotally important role in any organization as far as shaping the performance and effectiveness is concerned. For instance, if organizations are capable of acquiring workers with the requisite skills, knowledge, and aptitudes, then, it becomes obvious that these organizations are capable of making accurate predictions regarding the future abilities of the selected employees/workers. This premise suggests that following an effective and efficient strategy in recruiting and selecting workers enables organizations to avoid undesirable costs such as high staff turnover costs, poor performance among workers, and dissatisfied customers (Raybould, and Sheedy, 2005). Eventually, it engenders a mutually beneficial employment relationship within the organization and it can be evidenced by increased commitment among the involved workers. To this purpose, the recruitment and selection process forms an integral part in the orga nizational process of leading and managing people and the recruitment and selection process is increasingly important in the strengthening of competitive advantage within that organization. The UK Graduate Recruitment and Selection The objective of this review is to examine and uncover the effectiveness of the recruitment and selection process among UK-based organizations. As noted, graduate recruitment and selection process forms an essential part in the central activities underlying the management of human resources within many organizations (Gilmore, and Williams, 2009). These activities include the acquisition of talent, training and developing the talent, and eventually rewarding the performance of the acquired talent. Mohamed (2008, p. 497), even though the number of individuals entering the higher education market has doubled over the past two decades, many employers still find it difficult to recruit the type of employees that fulfill their hiring needs and requirements. The list of desirable qualities among employers has become sophisticated desirable qualities from job applicants. The Association of Graduate Recruiters reports recruitment and hiring agencies receive thousands of applications from grad uates, but the employers still find it difficult to find the applicants who meet their quality. Could there be a problem with the recruiting and selection process? Do graduate applicants fail to fulfill the hiring needs, qualities, or qualifications? These are examples of questions that need answers in order to understand the reasons as to why employers still find it difficult to get the right candidates for their jobs (Shiona, 2010). Despite the availability of limited vacancies, potential employers have had to cope with increased volumes of job applicants. Mohamed (2008) argues that employers in the UK search for graduates, who are capable of adding value to their economic strength and well, enhance their reputation. Employers often recruit workers whom they can train and develop in order to utilize their skills and knowledge (Roberts, 2005). Nevertheless, what does it take to be a good graduate? What processes do employers use to identify good graduates? Another important revelation of the recruitment and selection process within the UK job industry is the relationship betwe en the employment (graduate) labor market and the higher education sector. While higher education is supposed to nurture and prepare graduates for the job market by enhancing knowledge and learning, it is not their duty to secure employment opportunities for the graduates. This can be attributed to the fact that the higher education market is responsible for preparing graduates to fit the needs of different employment sectors thereby making it difficult to provide training to specific individuals. An exploratory study by Carless (2007) revealed that institutions of higher learning play critical roles in ensuring efficiency and efficacy among graduates. Studies by Silvester, Anderson, Haddleton, Cunningham-snell, and Gibb (2000, p. 16) point out that the graduate recruitment and selection process in the UK has undergone tremendous changes in the recent past and the majority of such changes entail the streamlining of selection procedures to reduce costs. Among the highly adopted strat egies are the use virtual selection methods such video interviews, telephones, and internet means. Traditionally, organizations in the UK recruiting industry found it a lot easier to recruit candidates from the list of job applicants, who accepted any form of job offering (Mohamed, 2008, p. 498). In the contemporary UK job market, thousands of applicants can apply for vacant job positions but it becomes a difficult task to recruit the ideal candidate. This can be attributed to the different trends and developments that have occurred in the recruitment and selection methods. Increased competition among graduate employers, technological advancements, and socio-economic and political changes are other factors that have led to complexities in the recruitment and selection processes. Keenan (2005) postulates that the recruitment and selection process in the UK follows a sequential process referred to as the resourcing cycle. Resourcing cycle of the recruitment and selection process As earlier mentioned, the recruitment and selection process follows some defined sequences characterized by distinct and inter-linked stages. These sequences are referred to as the resourcing cycle of the recruitment and selection process. This cycle begins when graduates identify an available vacancy and ends when the selected candidate lives up to the expectation of the case by performing to the required standards. To graduate, the organization is a prospective employer while to the organization the candidate is evaluated to fill the vacancy (Raybould, and Sheedy, 2005). In order to ensure that best candidates are selected to a particular post, it is forcefully crucial that the recruitment and selection process be handled in a timely and professional manner characterized by effectiveness and efficiency. The first step of the recruitment and selection process entails the announcement of a vacant position within an organization. This move is subject to thorough decision-making by members of the management regarding the strategic impacts within their organization (Tineke, Maddy, 2008). At times, situations exist where a vacant position resulting after an employee leaves are organization is replaced with automated machines. If the decision is made that, the vacant position requires to be filled, job specifications are drawn down to reflect the duties and requirements needed for that job in addition to requisite skills, experiences, and personal attributes. The next step involves the process of attracting candidates in order to produce a large pool of applicants from where the ideal candidate will be selected. Very often this function of the recruitment and selection process are outsourced to recruiting and hiring agencies in order to eliminate the number of unsuitable candidates applyi ng for the vacant position. The third step is the resourcing cycle that entails shortlisting the number of candidates to a manageable level whereby it will be easy to make an employment decision (Tineke Maddy, 2008). The selection process generates an optimum number of job seekers and the majority of applicants are rejected during this stage. Many things happen during this stage because the recruitment tools and strategies are applied during this stage including interviews, face-to-face meetings, and other forms of communicating the selection procedure. Once the recruiting tools and methods have been utilized, recruitment decisions are made and the actual selection is made. Nonetheless, the selection process does not mark the end of the job recruitment and selection exercise because their abilities and capabilities to perform the allotted job to maximum cannot be ascertained. To avoid uncertainties regarding the capabilities of selected individuals, a probationary period is imposed whereby the performance and potential of employees is assessed and evaluated. This period marks the transition period or the post selection phase where the selected employees are inducted and integrated into the organization. This is a critical process because the selected candidates are taught several issues relating to the organization such as the organizational culture, normal routines, and ethical processes within the organization. The final stage under the resourcing cycle is the evaluation of the entire post-selection process and conducting a reflec tion of the lessons learnt from the entire process and as well, suggesting future implications. Statistics of Variations in Recruitment and Selection methods According to survey findings undertaken to determine the causes of variations in recruitment methods used by employers in UK, each year, 91 per cent of employers and potential graduate recruits prefer the internet as the ideal method for large organizations (Mohamed, 2008, p. 504). Closely behind the internet at 89 per cent was the use of career literature such as Prospects, Prospects Today, and GET directory ((Mohamed, 2008, p. 504). Other methods such as milk rounds and career fairs were less popular after the survey findings estimated its popularity at 45 per cent each while recruitment agencies was the least popular at 15 per cent (Mohamed, 2008, p. 504). Similarly, the survey also considered the cause of variations in terms of selection methods used by employers in the UK graduate recruitment and selection industry (Mohamed, 2008, p. 506). From the survey, the use of CVs and Cover letters was mostly preferred by small and medium-sized employers while the use of assessment centers and aptitude tests were less preferred by most employers (Mohamed, 2008, p. 506). Shortlisting of respondents before inviting them for the interview was also revealed as one of the commonly used selection methods (Mohamed, 2008, p. 506). In situations where interviews were conducted, a combination of both single and panel interviews was used with variations in compositions of members in the interviewing panel (Mohamed, 2008, p. 506). Speaking of reasons for the variations in recruiting and selection methods among the graduates, accuracy and relevancy of the selection and recruitment methods seemed to be the overriding factor (Mohamed, 2008, p. 508). To that purpose, employers cited the employer application form as being the most accurate and reliable method for assessing the characteristics and qualities of potential employees (Mohamed, 2008, p. 508). This can be attributed to fact that employer application forms provided high levels of accuracy when gathering information, assessing the company’s competencies, and as well, in simplification of the selection process (Mohamed, 2008, p. 508). In terms of cost saving, the CV and covering letter provided the highest cost saving levels due to the ease of sending and in providing more information. Equally noteworthy was the use of interviews in gathering crucial but first information about the applicants. The two-interaction, fairness, ability to fill gaps left b y other forms, and the ease of validation were cited as the factors that promoted the use of interviews in the selection process (Mohamed, 2008, p. 508). Types of Graduate Recruitment and Selection Methods Milk Round This recruitment method involves the process of conducting annual recruitment programs during career fairs different institutions of higher learning whereby potential employers and companies converge to give public lectures, presentations, and as well meet and/or interview final year students. This strategy was immensely popular in the UK some two decades ago before the expansion and development of the information age. Additionally, companies advertise and promote the available employment opportunities directly to the participating students. Many a time, the associated companies involved in these milk rounds had periodic graduate trainee programs that were specifically developed and designed to absorb fresh graduates, train them, and provide the requisite exposure to issues relating to the business world. Career services such as university outreach programmes and linkages were responsible for organizing the trade fairs in liaison with particular companies. However, this method slowly lost its popularity due to technological advancements and increased use of the internet. Most companies have created web-based recruitment strategies such as CV databases, job boards, and recruiting agencies. Companies have even gone to an extent of using the internet for job advertising, filling online application forms, and even conducting online tests such aptitude tests (Mohamed, (2008, p.500). Employee Referrals The current employees within the organization can act as a rich source of providing linkages to potential recruits. They might hold vital information about graduates who can match the available position within the organization and such individuals might not be in a position of responding to normal recruitment methods (Shiona, 2010). This can be attributed to the fact that most of such employees might be occupied in other jobs and might not be actively searching for job placements. However, they might be enticed to look for other available employment opportunities if the right opportunity presents itself along the way. Such a strategy can be encouraged by offering bonuses to employees who provide leads through referrals. Recruitment Brochures, Magazines, and Print Media This involves the use of graduate recruitment literature such as GET Directories, and Prospects of the UK because these brochures are direct targets for most graduates. Organizational recruitment brochures are also availed to participants during graduate recruitment fairs. Other forms that are still increasingly used by prospective employers and companies include advertisement in local dailies and newspaper whereby job adverts are placed on the adverts and targets potential applicants due to the increased velocity of their circulation and area of coverage. Advertisements Although it can be related to the above-mentioned forms of job recruitment methods and techniques, advertisements form an ideal method that is increasingly utilized by employers to market their job vacancies and openings. Adverts are often placed on local newspapers, and online platforms. Majority of adverts are found on job websites because job seekers frequently visit such websites. Job Databases This involves maintaining a job filling system or job database for prospective employers using resumes and CVs that have been collected over extended periods. Such CVs and Resumes might have been collected from career fairs, manual deliveries, and as well from the company’s mail system. Once a job opening avails itself within the organization, the people responsible for recruiting services visit the database and select potential employees from the available list. Employment Agencies Recruiting agencies specialize in the provision of job recruitment initiatives whereby they screen job applicants are subjected to tests relative to the positions they have applied for, based on their skills and qualifications. The costs of utilizing services from the recruiting agency might be high but they offer the best services in terms of selecting the ideal candidates for particular positions (Roberts, 2005). The long-term rewards are often advantageous to the hiring organization. Internal Recruiting This recruitment method is one of the most essential strategies of filling up available vacancies because the current employees within an organization can be suited to fill up positions that have opened up within their organizations. This employee matching strategy reduces the costs associated with other traditional hiring methods. Hiring employees from within enables a company to obtain increased value in terms of employee relation benefits. Equally noteworthy is the idea that hired employees from within often demand lower compensation as compared to hiring employees from external sectors. Lastly, internal recruiting enables companies to decrease their expenditure turnovers through the provision of advancement opportunities for existing employees. Career and Recruitment Fairs Career and recruitment fairs are often ideal places for promoting entry-level jobs for fresh graduates and as well, for those individuals, who are willing to change their jobs. Responsible organs within many universities in conjunction with respective companies organize majority of recruitment and career fairs. Such places are also ideal for enabling potential employers to collect CVs and resumes to be used in future vacancies. Graduate Recruitment mechanism/tools The mechanisms used to select graduates for various positions vary from one recruiter to the other and it depends on the type of job being offered. Commonly used mechanisms and tools include face-to-face interviews, internet, agencies, and tests, among others. Face-to-face Interviews This is the most commonly used recruitment strategy among many employers in the graduate recruitment and selection process within the UK. Job applicants are required to appear before a panel of interviewers whereby general assessment is undertaken. Among the aspects examined during the interview is verification of the originality of documents and testimonials, cross-examining the application to find out the reasons and interests for applying the job, gauging his/her awareness and knowledge concerning matters within the industry. During specific interview sessions, the interviews are technically focused on the examination of particular details regarding the position, job description, and personality traits. The applicant is subjected to a series of questions and tests to determine different capabilities and levels of sustenance for the interviewee (Gill, Banks, 1978). Follow-up questions are often directed to applicants to probe deeply into more details about the applicant including his special skills, points of difference, and qualifications. Recruitment Agencies Recruitment agencies are gaining increased popularity within the UK job industry particularly in the search of graduates and executive talent. This mechanism is one of the most expensive mediums irrespective of whether an organization uses the retainer or the contingency firm. Recruiting agencies specialize in the provision of job recruitment initiatives whereby they screen job applicants and subject them to tests relative to the positions they have applied based on their skills and qualifications. Recruitment agencies are experienced in matching the qualifications of candidates faster than the speed with which other organizations are capable of achieving (Roberts, 2005). Most recruiting agencies have job databases with details of thousands of applicants in addition to having a wider access to potential employees. Similarly, they have greater access to the criteria needed by the hiring companies. Online Application The internet is one of the fastest and cheapest mechanisms of recruiting workers when compared to other traditional methods of recruiting workers. Organizations wishing to recruit workers often post their jobs to internet sites for a modest period where they remain available 24-hours a day. Potential job applicants will be able to view the detailed information about the job opening and position being advertised and send their responses through electronic means. Organizations will be able to screen the applications by assessing the experience of applicants, their skills, and qualifications, and matching them with the skills required in that particular job. Due to advancements in technology, online screening processes and systems are capable of performing automatic filtering of applications send to the receiving mail. This mechanism often enables the organization to filter large volumes of job applications sent to the company. Psychometric Testing This hiring mechanism is often conducted by qualified staff and involves subjecting applicants a wide range of tests. To that purpose, psychometric testing covers varied abilities of applicants include personality profiling, ability testing, and aptitude testing. Such tests often involve two levels-A and B (Sackett, and Lievens, 2008). The first level involves aptitude testing and ability testing whereas the second level B involves personality profiling. Aptitude tests and ability tests covers a wide range of aspects that include mechanical abilities, numerical ability, verbal ability, general intelligence, sensory. and motor abilities. This strategy often allows feedback to be offered to participants. Personality profiling involves testing particular behaviors of applicants by subjecting them to things that might affect their suitability for some posts (Sackett, and Lievens, 2008). Presentations and group exercises Presentations involve giving applicants a particular topic and asking them to deliver a presentation on that topic within a given period. On the other hand, group exercises encompass the division of applicants into particular groups and selecting a role-play or discussion from where every member of the group will be expected to contribute. At the end of the exercise, the group should be in a position of coming up with a meaningful project to enable them to acquire marks. Interests of employers The interests of employers during the graduate recruitment and selection process vary from employer to employer, and depend on the type vacancy. Within these factors are varied aspects such as skills, qualifications, knowledge, experience, organizational capabilities, team spirit, and resilience, among others. To this purpose, graduates should prepare extensively when called for interviews by being committed to the needs and requirements of the recruitment and selection process. Any misunderstanding should be communicated in advance. According to survey findings from Mohamed (2008, p. 508), employers expectations varied depending on the size and nature of operations within the organization (p. 508). Good transferable skills was more preferred to having excellent academic grades. As such, only 21 per cent of respondents argued that the level of degree qualification was more important as compared the degree subject. However, a large percentage (87 per cent) stated that the degree classification was more important than other factors. Summary of the Review The graduate recruitment and selection process in the United Kingdom has undergone various changes over the past few decades and this is likely to bring an impact to future recruitment and selection processes. This can be attributed to the inability of the employment market to absorb the growing pool of graduates from institutions of higher learning. The demand for quality graduates will remain highly competitive, and the most advantaged recruiters will be those with strong recruitment policies, coupled with exceptional training and development policies. Traditionally, organizations in the UK recruiting industry found it a lot easier to recruit candidates from the list of job applicants who accepted any form of job offering (Mohamed, 2008, p. 498). In the contemporary UK job market, thousands of applicants can apply for vacant job positions but it becomes a difficult task to recruit the ideal candidates.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The Layers of a Forest From Floor to Canopy

Forests are habitats in which the trees are the dominant form of vegetation. They occur in many regions and climates around the globe—the tropical rainforests of the Amazon basin, the temperate forests of eastern North America, and the boreal forests of northern Europe are just a few examples. Species Composition The species composition of a forest is often unique to that forest, with some forests consisting of many hundreds of species of trees while others consist of just a handful of species. Forests are constantly changing and progress through a series of successional stages during which species composition changes within the forest. Thus, making general statements about forest habitats can be difficult. Yet despite the variability of our planets forests, there are some basic structural characteristics that many forests share—characteristics that can help us to better understand both forests and the animals and wildlife that inhabit them. The Layers of a Forest Mature forests often have several distinct vertical layers. These include: Forest floor layer:  The  forest floor  is often blanketed with decaying leaves, twigs, fallen trees, animal scat, moss, and other detritus. The forest floor is where recycling occurs, fungi, insects, bacteria, and earthworms are among the many organisms that break down waste materials and ready them for reuse and recycling throughout the forest system.Herb layer:  The  herb layer  of the forest is dominated by herbaceous (or soft-stemmed) plants such as grasses, ferns, wildflowers, and other ground covers. Vegetation in the herb layer often gets little light and in forests with thick canopies, shade tolerant species are predominant in the herb layer.Shrub layer: The shrub layer is characterized by woody vegetation that grows relatively close to the ground. Bushes and brambles grow where enough light passes through the canopy to support shrub growth.Understory layer: The understory of a forest consists of immature trees and small trees that are shorter than the main canop y level of the tree. Understory trees provide shelter for a wide range of animals. When gaps form in the canopy, often times understory trees take advantage of the opening and grow to fill in the canopy.Canopy layer:  The canopy is the layer where the crowns of most of the forests trees meet and form a thick layer.Emergent layer:  Emergents are trees whose crowns emerge above the rest of the canopy. Mosaic of Habitats These different layers provide a mosaic of habitats and enable animals and wildlife to settle into various pockets of habitat within the overall structure of a forest. Different species use the various structural aspects of the forest in their own unique ways. Species might occupy overlapping layers within a forest but their use of those layers might occur at different times of the day so that they do not compete with one another.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Abstinence-only vs. Abstinence-plus - 1607 Words

There are many problems facing teenagers these days. None are bigger than the issue of underage sex, and all the issues stemming from it. The number of teenagers becoming sexually active, pregnant, and contracting sexually transmitted diseases are rapidly on the rise. There is no simple fix, or easy solution to this problem. Sex education should begin at home, and extend to include an effective program in schools that reinforce a clear message of abstaining from sexual activity in addition to informing students of the risks posed by engaging in sexual activity. The political, and religious dissension on this issue has resulted in a procedural stalemate preventing schools from effectively addressing the problem, and implement a†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å"The ideal of what historian Anne Higonnet calls the Romantic Child, our modern image of a naturally asexual, pure child, is at the heart of century-long conflicts over sex education. By definition, the romantic childâ €™s innocence depends on protection from sexuality† (Talk About Sex 13). Parents, in general, do not feel at ease thinking about their children having sex, nor do they want to encourage them to do so. The fact that most parents are not comfortable talking about the subject with their children only increases the importance of doing so in our schools. Opposition of the Abstinence-Plus program centers around the belief that by comprehensively informing students about sex, and responsible practices, in addition to supplying contraceptives, will send a message that not only is it okay to have sex but here have a condom to do it with. In some cases, they actually suggest the importance of telling students that condoms are â€Å"ineffective and do not workâ€Å" (Teenage Sexuality 205). Over the past few decades, several attempts have been made to â€Å"scare† teenagers away from sex. â€Å"In the sex-education video No Second Chance, a young man asks the teacher what if he does not to wait until marriage to have sex. She replies, â€Å"Well, I guess you’ll just have to be prepared to die† (Talk About Sex 117). The intended message was that condoms do not work in effectively preventing HIV. This isShow MoreRelatedEssay on Should Sex Education be Taken Out of Schools?969 Words   |  4 Pagesschools takes two forms: Abstinence-Plus education and Abstinence-only education. The former, allows teenagers to explore not only the functions of sex and reproductive organs but also sexually transmitted diseases, abortions and information on how to use condoms and other kinds of contraception. The benefit of this program is that it encourages teenagers to practice abstinence while acknowledging the fact that most teenagers will choose to engage in sex. Abstinence-only education, however, simplyRead More Abstinence Only Sex Education Essays2119 Words   |  9 Pagesdisparity can be attributed to factors such as income inequality, the presence of abstinence only education has a major impact on birth and STD rates in the United States in comparison to other countries with more comprehensive programs. It is clear that this difference in approaches has a significant effect, and the United States needs to act to ensure the health of its citizens. Urgent actions are necessary because abstinence only education is becoming more popular in the United States and more and moreRead MoreTeen Pregnancy in the United States Essays3049 Words   |  13 Pagespaper will focus on the majority aspect of pregnancy in adolescent. Being pregnant at a young age puts adolescent mothers at a higher risk for short and long-term complications. This can be either health or social complications. Teen pregnancy not only put the mothers at risk but also put the newborns at risk for low-birth weight, premature births, and developmental delays (Strunk, 2008). Every year, the average amount of dollars spent on teen pregnancy is about $11 billion in tax dollars. TheRead MoreMethadone Maintenance3756 Words   |  16 Pagesmethadone, buprenorphine maintenance treatment, heroin maintenance treatment, and L-a-acetylmethadol (LAAM) maintenance treatment, methadone maintenance treatment was more effective than detoxification, no treatment, buprenorphine, LAAM, and heroin plus methadone. High doses of methadone are more effective than medium and low doses (10). Patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment exhibit reductions in illicit opioid use that are directly related to methadone dose, the amount of psychosocialRead MoreQuit Smoking Case Study Essay4989 Words   |  20 Pagesphysician for the first time, during which his prior military history came to light. The young man recalled the anxiety he experienced when he received his military orders for deployment to Iraq. Prior to the notice of deployment, he smoked cigarettes only occasionally, maybe 1 or 2 cigarettes a day. As the time for deployment approached, he started smoking more cigarettes and by the time he arrived in Iraq was up to a full pack a day. Throughout the 12-month deployment, he steadily increased his smokingRead MoreAbortion Essay1589 Words   |  7 Pagesthe Supreme Court ruling of Roe v. Wade. Jane Roe was single, pregnant woman wanted to get an abortion by a competent, licensed physician, under safe, clinical conditions (The Ethics of Abortion 13). This was not an option for her because the only way a woman could have an abortion in Texas at that time was if giving birth to the child might in some way endanger her life. Many woman would have traveled to a state where abortions were legal but this was not an option for Roe because she didRead MoreBirth Control : A Controversial Topic Since The 1960 S1718 Words   |  7 Pagesolder a woman is, the more likely it is for her to use female sterilization. 31 percent of women between the ages of 35-44 were using female sterilization, while only 0.7 percent of women between the ages of 15-24 used the same method. Younger women preferred oral contraceptives with 22.4 percent of women ages 15-24 using it, compared to only 8.7 percent of women ages 35-44. Women under the age of 34 were more likely to use condoms and reversible contraceptives at about 11 percent compared to olderRead MoreSmoking Cessation Of Pregnancy : Review Of Current Strategies9414 Words   |  38 Pagespartner is ass ociated with increased chances of quitting [6]. Cigarette dependence determined by the number of cigarettes smoked per day, frequency of urges and the level of expired carbon monoxide, have been reported to be reliable predictors of abstinence, at least in the short period [5]. Low levels of stress and psychiatric comorbidities including Depression and Anxiety have been associated with increased chances of cessation [5]. Up to 12% of pregnant women have Major Depressive Disorder [12Read MoreBinge Eating Disorder ( Bed )1948 Words   |  8 Pagesdiagnosis, EDE (Eating Disorder Esamination) was always used, and the participants’ symptoms meet the ones of DSM-IV. Regarding the methods I looked just for experiment using the randomization. Finally coming to the results, I selected the articles only if they take as outcomes remission of OBEs (Objective Binge Episodes) and/or the frequency of binge eating. Unfortunately, my research were scant by the fact that it is not a common disease, which is why I could use just about 10 articles. AccordingRead MoreBinge Eating Disorder ( Bed )2041 Words   |  9 Pagesdiagnosis, EDE (Eating Disorder Esamination) was always used, and the participants’ symptoms meet the ones of DSM-IV. Regarding the methods, I considered just for experiment using the randomization. Finally coming to the results, I selected the articles only if they take as outcomes remission of OBEs (Objective Binge Episodes) and/or the frequency of binge eating. Unfortunately, my research were scant by the fact that it is not a common disease, which is why I could use just a few articles. According

Music and Its Effects on Behaviors in Teenagers and Young Adults Free Essays

Jorja M. Rea Professor Andre Yang English 1A 25 November 2012 Music and its effects on Behaviors in Teenagers and Young Adults Picture this: A young man is arrested for murder, twisting and cursing at the police as his mother watches from the sidewalk. It is light enough out that you can see, not far from him, lays the body of a young women. We will write a custom essay sample on Music and Its Effects on Behaviors in Teenagers and Young Adults or any similar topic only for you Order Now She was his girlfriend, whom he had beaten to death. This young man is just one of many young adults that are being arrested for committing vicious crimes in our society. Barongan and Nagayama Hall (1995) examined the effects of cognitive distortions in men had towards women. The men in this study viewed women in a sexually aggressive way. The men’s behavior was observed in a laboratory setting. Twenty-seven men listened to misogynous rap music and 27 men listened to neutral rap music. Participants then viewed neutral, sexually-violent, and assaultive film vignettes and chose the vignette that they found appealing. The results showed that â€Å"participants who viewed the sexual-violent stimuli indeed felt sexually violent towards women, even having thoughts of raping and abusing women†. That young man will spend the next 3 years of his teenage life in a jovial facility and then be relocated to prison once he turns 18. What happened that caused a young man with a 3. 0 GPA to go from good to bad? According to Ortiz (2004) it all has to do with the human brain. The human brain has been called the most complex mass in the known universe. This is a well-deserved reputation, for this organ contains billions of connections called neurons. Among its parts and governs countless actions, involuntary and voluntary, physical, mental and emotional. The largest part of the brain is the frontal lobe. A small area of the frontal lobe located behind the forehead, called the prefrontal cortex, controls the brain’s most advanced functions. This part often referred to as the â€Å"CEO† of the body, providing humans with advanced cognition. It allows us to prioritize thoughts, imagine, think in the abstract, anticipate consequences, plan, and control impulses. Along with everything else in the body, the brain changes significantly during adolescence. In the last five years, scientists, using new technologies, such as an MRI, have discovered that adolescent brain is far less developed han previously believed. Doctors of Harvard Medical School have studied the relation between these new findings and teen behavior and concluded that adolescents often rely on emotional parts of the brain, the Amygdala, rather than the frontal lobe, â€Å"one of the things that teenagers seem to do is to respond more strongly with gut response than they do with evaluating the consequences of what they’re doing. † Since this young man, and many countless others in his position, lacks a complete prefrontal cortex they are forced to use the Amygdala. Fight or Flight is all it tells us to do. Thus, without any clear knowledge these young people are forced to find role models who the feel â€Å"get them†. They turn to music for its lyrics and beat and this is where the trouble begins. Mahiri and Conner (2003) tested whether or not it is true that our African-American youth is more violent than other nationalities and why. Is it the rap music that they may listen to? The researchers assessed the perspective on violence of 41 middle school students attending a unique school in a low-income section of a large northern California city. The researchers probed ways that these students interpreted or reflected upon rap music and hip-hop culture, particularly its representation of violence, crime, and sex. A brief questionnaire was handed out to each of these participants, which consisted of scenario questions (what would you do if†¦). Based on the responses to the questions researchers were able to come to the conclusion that these particular students were â€Å"unfortunately looking up to these negative role models†. The constant talk of female assault, sex, and violence was being imbedded into these children’s minds†. And it doesn’t end there. Many other researchers have examined the effects of how musical genres have increased tendencies towards violet behaviors in teenagers and young adults. These studies have helped to uncover whether or not violent and aggressive music and music lyrics have had in fact, increased the rate of individuals that lash out in a violent, aggressive manne r. Although none of the researchers in this paper considered the lack of the prefrontal cortex as a results as to why these young adults are so effects by the images they see or the music they listen to, they did however find something else altogether; these studies were done to inform society on how music is affecting people’s moods. For example: Anderson et al. (2003) studied whether or not media violence influences youth. They randomly assigned youths to watch either a short violent or a short nonviolent music video and then observed how they interacted with other people after viewing the music video. After each participant watched the music video for approximately 15 minutes, both physical and verbal aggression towards others was assessed using a 10-point scale: with 1 showing nonviolent behaviors and 10 showing a lot of violent behaviors. A correlational analysis was used to see if there was a relationship between a participant watching the violent music video and acting violent, or watching the nonviolent music video and not acting violent. â€Å"The results showed that exposure to media violence had a statistically significant association with aggression and violence among youth†. This research clearly demonstrates that exposure to media violence heightens the chances that a youth will behave aggressively and have aggressive thoughts in the short run. Arlin (1996) examined the â€Å"influence of exposure to violent rock videos on participants’ appraisals of their own aggressiveness†. Participants were preselected based on their scores on a measure of locus of control. After completing a measure of Buss and Durkee’s Hostility Inventory, they were randomly assigned to view either a view or nonviolent music video. After viewing the video, participants once again completed the Hostility Inventory. The results revealed a main effect of locus of control, such that individuals with an external locus of control showed lower self-reported aggressiveness after viewing a music video than individuals with an internal locus of control. Johnson, Jackson and Gatto (1995) studied whether exposure to rap music could cause violent attitudes and delayed academic performance. Forty-six African-American males (ages 11 to 16 years) from an inner city boys club in Wilmington, North Carolina were recruited to participate in this study. Participants were randomly exposed to violent rap music videos, nonviolent rap music videos, or no music videos. They read two vignettes involving: (a) a violent act perpetrated against a man and a woman and (b) a young man who chose to engage in academic pursuits to achieve success, whereas his friend, who was unemployed, â€Å"mysteriously† obtained extravagant items (i. e. , a nice car, nice clothes). The results showed that participants who saw the violent rap music videos reported greater acceptance of violence. In addition, â€Å"participants who saw the violent rap videos reported higher probability of committing similar acts of violence and greater acceptance of the use of violence against women†. St. Lawrence and Joyner (1991) examined the effects of sexually violent rock videos on males’ acceptance or violence against women. The experimental manipulation involved exposure to sexually violent heavy-metal rock music, Christian heavy-metal rock music, or easy listening classical music. One month prior to the experimental manipulation, participants were administered several attitudinal scales about religious orientation, sex roles, rape myths, and interpersonal violence. The results indicated that â€Å"males without a religious background were more accepting of sexist and rape-supportive beliefs†. The researchers also came across an unexpected finding which was greater self-reported sexual arousal in response to classical music. Kalof (1999) examined the effects of gender and music video imagery on sexual attitudes. A group of 44 U. S. college students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups that viewed either a video portraying stereotyped sexual imagery or a video that excluded all sexual images. A two-way scale revealed that exposure to traditional sexual imagery had a significant main effect on attitudes about adversarial sexual relationships. There seems to be some confirmation of a relation between sex and exposure to conventional sexual imagery on the acceptance of interpersonal violence. † Viemero and Paajanen (1992) examined whether or not viewing violent television actually does increase the aggressive behavior of those who viewed it. There were 391 eight-year old and ten-year old children participating in this study. â€Å"These children were tested on their aggression, their fear fantasies, and their dream and fantasies about these shows†. Two measurements of aggression were made: peer-nominated aggression and self-related aggression. TV viewing habits were measured by the amount of TV viewed during the week. Violence was depicted by how regularly violent TV shows were watched. They found that there was significant positive correlation for boys between TV viewing variables and aggression. There was also a significant positive correlation between the amount of TV and televised violence viewing and fear and aggressive fantasies about actual shows that were seen by the children. â€Å"These children seem to have been strongly impacted by the violence seen on television shows they were watching, and then acting in a more aggressive way after watching the violence†. Now that the It seems very obvious that there is a significant relationship between listening to violent music and watching aggressive/violent music videos and one getting into more fights, using inappropriate language, inappropriate gestures, and a tendency to think less of women. All of these researchers identified in this paper studied this exact relationship and found significant results. It is apparent that there is indeed a direct correlation between violent music and people’s aggressive behaviors. An operational definition of violent behavior is physically and verbally hurrying others, cursing, stealing, inappropriate gestures and negative views of women. Whether it is the lyrics, the beat, or watching the entertainers act violently, people in general who are viewing these music videos are behaving in an inappropriate and destructive way. Listening to violent music has an effect on aggression. This information is useful for parents of young children who are growing up watching these music videos. The studies completed by the researches mentioned in this paper reveal a serious problem. Our society as a whole should consider this a severe problem, especially with all of the school bombings, the high rates of angry- gang affiliated- weapon carrying young people, and the millions of dollars being spent on this violent and degrading (mostly to women) kind of music. When angry, violent, aggressive, vulgar videos were shown, participants portrayed a massive amount of hostility; their moods were changing as the video continued as did their behavior. They also answered the scenario questions with the most violent answer chose available. The participants who viewed nonviolent videos showed amazingly different answers to the questions, the majority of them answering the questions with the nonviolent or calmer answer choses. This clearly shows evidence that allowing teenagers and young adults to watch violent music videos (like Eminem or DMX) has and will have a strong effect on violent tendencies like beating a women to death. It can also be said that the reason the results were significant in the violent groups is because of the extreme difference between the two videos. The violent videos were extremely violent showing fighting, carjacking, yelling, cursing, and hitting women. Meanwhile, the nonviolent groups watched music videos that showed people dancing on the beach and having fun. The extreme differences between the two types of videos could be the reason for the significant results obtained by the researchers. It may be wise in the future research to use videos that are not so tremendously different. Bibliography Anderson, C. A, Berkowits, L. , Donnerstein, M. , Edward, K. , Huesmann, L. , Rowell, J. , Johnson, J. , Linz, D. , Malamuth, N. , Wartella, H. 2003). The influence of media violence on youth. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4, 81- 110. Arlin, B. , (1996). The influence of locus of control and aggressiveness of rock music on aggression. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 14, 491- 498. Barongan, C. , Nagayama Hall, G. C. (1995). The influence of misogynous rap music on sexual aggression against women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 19, 195-207. Mahiri, J. , Conner, E. Black youth violence has a bad rap. Journal of Social Issues, 59, 121-140. Johnson, J. D, Jackson, L. A. , Gatto, L (1995). Violent attitudes and different academic aspirations: Deleterious effects of exposure to rap music. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 16 (1-2), 27-41. Kalof, L. (1999). The effects of gender and music video imagery on sexual attitudes. Journal of Social Psychology, 139, 378- 385. St. Lawrence, J. S. , Joyner, D. J.. (1991). The effect of sexually violent rock music on males’ acceptance of violence against women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 15, 49-63. Viemero, V. , Paajanen, S. (1992). The role of fantasies and dreams in the TV viewing-aggression relationship. Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 109-116. How to cite Music and Its Effects on Behaviors in Teenagers and Young Adults, Papers

What Abilities Do Good Thinkers Possess free essay sample

What abilities do good thinkers possess? General Psychology April 30th 2012 Good thinkers have the ability to think psychologically and enhance the ability to solve problem according to the Psychology core concepts. People with good thinking skills can identify can solve problems while considering all possibilities without leading to a conclusion. Another part of problem solving is choosing a strategy that fits the problem (Wickelgren, 1974). There are two methods for selecting a strategy which are algorithms and heuristics. Algorithms are formulas or procedures, like the ones used for math and science classes. They can help solve problems if you have all the necessary information. Some examples in the book are balancing a check book, figuring gas mileage, calculating grade point average and making a call on your cell phone. It will work because you are following a step by step procedure leading you from your problem to your solution. Certain problems that have more uncertainty and complex compartments can not be solved with algorithms. We will write a custom essay sample on What Abilities Do Good Thinkers Possess? or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Heuristics are simple basic â€Å"rules of thumb† that helps cut through confusion of complicated situations, they are helpful but do not guarantee a solution. Some examples from the book are â€Å"don’t keep bananas in the refrigerator†, â€Å"If it doesn’t work see if it’s plugged in†. Heuristics require special knowledge like medical, physics or psychology training. There are three essential heuristics that are helpful to learn according to the book which are: working backward, searching for analogies and breaking a big problem into smaller problems. Having a good selection of strategies is also very important with problem solving. When you connect yourself to an ineffective strategy and stick to it you will have lot of problems. Good problem solvers have the ability to know when a new approach is needed, meaning they know when to choose an algorithm or heuristic method to solve their problem. Another important charactertics that good thinker possess in good judgment making and decision making skills. Some examples from the book are â€Å"How much should I invest†, â€Å"What grade does this paper deserve†. All situations require judgment making without bias. The book describes 5 types of bias, which are: confirmation, hindsight, anchoring, representativeness and availability bias. Confirmation bias is when you ignore or find fault. Hindsight bias is also known as the â€Å"I knew it all along effect†. Anchoring bias is a faulty heuristic caused by basing anchoring an estimate on complety irrelevant quantity. Representativeness bias is assumptions about a certain group people. Availability bias is based on information, estimates of probabilities recalled from personal experience. With the knowledge learned from the book we can all become better thinkers and learn how to effectively solve the many problems we encounter on daily basis. We can relate to the examples in the book and can find out exactly what kind of thinkers we are. References Zimbardo, Philip. Johnson, Robert. McCann, Vivian. (2009). Psychology core concepts. Boston: Pearson.

Monday, May 4, 2020

Law of Contract Management

Question: Explain Law of Contract? Answer: Issues: The issues that arise in the present matter are underlined as under: Whether martin is under a legal obligation to pay jim the extra 20 per hour in order to keep him under employment? Whether there is any possibility on part of lee to recover the 500 from martin? Rules: The relevant legal rules that apply in this case are provided as under: A contract is said to be a valid one if there exist certain basic requirements namely offer, acceptance, consideration, intention to enter into a legal obligation etc (neyers, bronaugh and pitel, 2009). The requirement in this question is that of consideration as far as the first issue is concerned. We shall take an illustration to understand the matter in clear terms: A appoints b to clean his windows and promises that he would pay him $5 for cleaning them. The payment here qualifies to be a consideration. Now, b complains that he would not clean the windows because of a bad weather. Hence, a promises that he would pay him $2 extra if he does that, to which b agrees. After the completion of the cleaning, b demands his payment of $7 but a pays him only $5 and claims that that was the agreement. In this illustration, only the first contract exists as the second promise was not qualifying to be a valid consideration because b was already obliged to do his cleaning task. Hence, the second contract does not exist. In the case of dick bentley productions limited v harold smith (motors) limited (dick bentley productions limited v harold smith (motors) limited, [1965]), it was ruled by lord denning that the requirement under consideration states that the recipient of the promise on the first go cannot envisage any other contract to override his obligation under the present contract. Any such increase in consideration amounts to qualify as a contract entered into under coercion and thus becomes void (hillman, 1997). Further, in the case of carlyle v royal bank of scotland (carlyle v royal bank of scotland, [2013]), it has been ruled by lord neuberger that a consideration in case of a continuing contract remains valid till the entire length of the contract and any revisions to the same cannot be entertained in it at any point of time (hillman, 1997). We shall now move to our discussion on the legal points concerned with the second issue which is a matter of part payment of debts. It is a general rule in law that if a person owes a sum of money to another person and he agrees to pay a part of this debt as a full settlement to realize his debt, then, as per the pinnels case (pinnel's case, [1602]), the rule at common law provides that such a part- payment of a debt does not evade the penalty that arises at a later stage (richards, 2006). In this case, it was held by the lordships that generally a part payment of a debt does not qualify to evade the liabilities of the whole debt. However, three exceptional circumstances were provided which qualified the requirement that a part payment can be considered as a full settlement (morgan, 2012). These situations are: When the part payment is made on an earlier date than the date on which it is due (like it happened in the case itself) and the creditor earns a benefit out of it; When a chattel is paid instead of money which may prove to be more beneficial than the money itself; When the payments in part are paid in a different place from that originally specified. Also, in the case of ferguson v davies (ferguson v davies, [1996]), it was provided by the court that when the part payments are realized by the creditors as a settlement in full, then, such requirement of part payment qualifies to settle the entire debt (morgan, 2012). Application: We shall now apply the above discussed legal rules in the present case. As far as the first issue with jim is concerned, it is very clear from the basic factual backdrop that martin and jim had entered into a valid contract with the terms specifically maintained. Jim had undertaken to lay the bricks and martin had promised to pay him $30/hour for the task. This happens to be a binding contract and both the parties are under an obligation to fulfill their respective parts. If jim at a later point of time threatens to breach his obligation in lieu of extra payment, then, that happens to be an invalid contract and it cannot be enforced. He is already bound by the first contract and he has to finish his work on time by the initial agreed consideration amount. Thus, the promise made by martin to pay him extra $20/hour does not amount to be an enforceable option and hence cannot be evoked. Applying the similar legal points in the second issue with lee, we can say that it should also be decided on similar grounds. But certain points of fact which are worth noting here are that owing to the recession that the nation was struck in along with the early payment made by martin qualifies to be a settlement of debts. In fact lee himself makes the offer that the loan that is due in march if paid in january shall entitle him to a discount of $500. Martin simply agreed to this term and hence if we apply the ratio of pinnel in the present matter, the entire loan was settled as and when the amount of $1500 was repaid in january for the benefit of both the parties. Thus, lee cannot compel martin to pay him anything now once the loan has settled. Conclusion: The problem given in the situation can be concluded on the following two propositions: That martin is under no legal obligation to pay jim the extra $20 per hour to keep him bound under employment. Rather jim is obligated to fulfill his promise under the previous contract of $30 per hour; That there is no possibility on part of lee to recover the $500 from martin as he has himself agreed to the early settlement in full of the loan. References Carlyle v royal bank of scotland[2013]csih p.75. Dick bentley productions limited v harold smith (motors) limited[1965]wlr 1, p.623. Ferguson v davies[1996]bplr p.535. Hillman, r. (1997).The richness of contract law. Dordrecht: kluwer academic publishers. Morgan, j. (2012).Great debates in contract law. Basingstoke: palgrave macmillan. Neyers, j., bronaugh, r. And pitel, s. (2009).Exploring contract law. Oxford: hart pub. Pinnel's case[1602]co rep 5 (court of appeal), p.117. Richards, p. (2006).Law of contract. Harlow, england: pearson longman.